NSRC Data Card 2012-13

Note: This data card is a sample only of data from the 2012-13 NSRC. Figures may not tally due to rounding.

Key Points (66 responding institutions)

Intellectual Property Activity

  • The number of invention disclosures decreased by 17% from 1,705 in 2011 to 1,420 in 2013.
  • The number of patent and plant breeder rights filed increased by 7% from 1,757 in 2011 to 1,872 in 2013.
  • The total stock of patents and plant breeder’s rights decreased by 5% from 11,055 in 2011 to 10,477 in 2013. 
  • The number of patents and plant breeder rights issued was 950 in 2011, 857 in 2012 and 1,059 in 2013, an increase of 10% from 2011 to 2013.

Table 1: Number of patents and plant breeders rights issued by sector, 2011-2013

  2011 2012 2013
PFRA 254 302 309
Universities 615 462 671
MRIs 81 92 79
Total 950 857 1059

Figure 1: Number of patents and plant breeder rights issued by sector, 2011-13

Figure 1: number of patents and plant breeder rights issued by sector, 2011-13

Licences, Options and Assignments (LOAs)

  • Adjusted LOA income was $130m in 2011, $345m in 2012 and $120m in 2013.
  • The number of active LOAs decreased by 14% from 2,867 in 2011 to 2,454 in 2013.
  • The number of LOAs yielding income increased by 20% from 791 in 2011 to 950 in 2013.

Table 2: Number of LOAs yielding income by sector, 2011-13

  2011 2012 2013
PFRA 276 280 281
Universities 447 434 618
MRIs 68 48 51
Total 791 792 950

Figure 2: Number of LOAs yielding income by sector, 2011-13

Figure 2: Number of LOAs yielding income by sector, 2011-13

Start-up Company Activity

  • Capital raising for research commercialisation activities decreased from $167m in 2011 to $96m in 2013.  The reduction was partly due to the decreased research commercialisation activities of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in 2013 (from $74m in 2011 to $40m in 2013).
  • Operational start-up companies increased by 9% from 199 in 2011 to 216 in 2013.
  • New start-up company formation increased by 53% from 17 in 2011 to 26 in 2013.

Table 3: Number of new start-up companies formed by sector, 2011-13

  2011 2012 2013
PFRA 2 3 3
Universities 14 12 21
MRIs 1 7 2
Total 17 22 26

Figure 3: Number of new start-up companies formed by sector, 2011-2013

Figure 3: Number of new start-up companies formed by sector, 2011-2013

Contracts, Consultancies and Direct Sales

  • The total number of direct sales transactions increased by 88% from 14,642 in 2011 to 27,519 in 2013.
  • The total number of research contracts and consultancies was 15,429 in 2011, 11,146 in 2012 and 12,228 in 2013.

Table 4: Number of contracts and consultancy agreements entered into by sector, 2011-2013

  2011 2012 2013
PFRA 3,022 1,994 1,965
Universities 11,849 8,915 10,046
MRIs 558 237 217
Total 15,429 11,146 12,228

Figure 4: Number of contracts and consultancy agreements entered into by sector, 2011-2013

Figure 4: Number of contracts and consultancy agreements entered into by sector, 2011-2013

Skills Development and Knowledge Exchange Activity

  • The number of institutions offering in-house training increased by 7% from 41 in 2011 to 44 in 2013.
  • The number of in-house training participants declined by 24% from 5,491 in 2011 to 4,169 in 2013.
  • The number of research postgraduates employed in start-up companies was 139 in 2011, 97 in 2012 and 89 in 2013, a decrease of 36% from 2011 to 2013.

Table 5: Number of research postgraduates employed in start-up companies by sector, 2011-13

  2011 2012 2013
PFRA 39 0 0
Universities 65 81 73
MRIs 35 16 16
Total 139 97 89

Figure 5: Number of research postgraduates employed in start-up companies by sector, 2011-2013

Figure 5: Number of research postgraduates employed in start-up companies by sector, 2011-2013

Resources for Research Commercialisation

  • Net commercialisation costs, including marketing, legal, staff and non-staff costs increased from $134m in 2011 to $141m in 2013. 
  • The total number of commercialisation staff, which includes commercialisation legal, marketing and industry engagement staff  was  681 in 2011, 575 in 2012 and 724 in 2013, an increase of 6% from 2011 to 2013.

Table 6: Total number of commercialisation staff by sector, 2011-2013

  2011 2012 2013
PFRA 191 194 189
Universities 448 338 490
MRIs 42 43 45
Total 681 575 724

Figure 6: Total number of commercialisation staff by sector, 2011-2013

Figure 6: Total number of commercialisation staff by sector, 2011-2013

International Comparisons

Intellectual Property Activity

Number of Invention Disclosures per $US100m research expenditure

  • Australia lags behind the US, Canada and the UK in the number of invention disclosures per $US100m of research expenditure with Australian institutions averaging 26 in the period 2004 to 2013, with the US averaging 39, Canada 40, and the UK 47.
  • While the number of invention disclosures by US institutions per $US100m of research expenditure has slightly declined in 2013, Australian and Canadian institutions have trended upward in 2012 and 2013.

Table 7: Number of Invention Disclosures per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

  Australia Canada US UK
2004
26.5
39.5
40.8
49.2
2005
26.8
41.0
41.1
53.1
2006
26.3
39.3
41.6
52.0
2007
25.6
43.6
40.6
48.1
2008
25.3
40.5
38.7
41.8
2009
25.1
39.5
37.6
40.8
2010
28.0
34.7
35.0
45.8
2011
27.9
38.9
35.8
46.6
2012
22.1
39.5
37.3
45.0
2013
23.6
43.2
36.9
-

Note: (-) No data available

Figure 7: Number of Invention Disclosures per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

Figure 7: Number of Invention Disclosures per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

Number of US Patents issued per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

  • After a significant fall from 2004 to 2005, the number of US patents issued to Australian institutions per $US100m of research expenditure has since remained relatively constant.
  • The number of US patents issued to institutions in the US, the UK and Canada per $US100m of research expenditure has slowly trended upward over recent years (2012 & 2013 for US and Canada and 2010 & 2011 for the UK).

Table 8: US Patents issued per $100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

  Australia Canada US UK
2004
5.3
4.5
8.9
11.6
2005
2.3
4.1
7.7
8.9
2006
2.6
3.1
7.2
9.0
2007
1.7
3.9
7.4
7.9
2008
1.4
2.7
6.3
7.1
2009
1.5
2.5
6.3
8.6
2010
1.9
2.9
7.6
8.2
2011
1.9
3.9
7.7
9.0
2012
1.8
4.0
8.1
10.0
2013
2.0
5.3
8.8
-

Note: (-) No data available

Figure 8: US Patents issued per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013Figure 8: US Patents issued per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

Licences, Options and Assignments (LOAs)

  • The number of LOAs executed per $US100m of research expenditure by Australia dropped from 10.6 in 2004 to 10.1 in 2011. A similar downward trend is reported for Canada and the US over the same period, while the UK reported a marked increase. On average, the number of LOAs executed per $US100m of research expenditure by Australia was 10 from 2004 to 2011. 

Table 9: Number of LOAs Executed per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

  Australia Canada US UK
2004
10.6
16.4
11.6
34.1
2005
11.6
16.3
11.7
41.5
2006
12.5
12.0
10.9
45.6
2007
11.9
16.0
10.5
42.5
2008
9.2
14.1
9.9
48.9
2009
8.9
14.2
9.9
50.1
2010
8.4
10.8
9.1
55.2
2011
8.1
12.3
9.9
77.8
2012
7.4
12.1
10.0
95.0
2013
10.1
9.5
10.1
-

Note: (-) No data available

Figure 9: Number of LOAs Executed per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

Figure 9: Number of LOAs Executed per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

Start-Up Company Activity

  • The number of Australian start-up companies formed per $US100m of research expenditure has gradually declined from 0.9 in 2004 to 0.4 in 2013.  Overall, Australia has remained relatively constant on the rate of start-up company formation over recent years. The US has maintained a stable rate of start-up company formation per $US 100m of research expenditure at a rate of around 1.1 over the years.
  • Canada and the US have all demonstrated an upward trend regarding the rate of start-up company formation per $US100m of research expenditure over recent years while the rate of start-up company formation in the UK has declined.

Table 10: Number of start-up companies formed per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

  Australia Canada US UK
2004
0.9
1.4
1.1
2.4
2005
1.0
1.0
1.2
2.9
2006
0.9
0.8
1.2
3.1
2007
0.8
1.1
1.1
2.9
2008
0.3
0.9
1.1
2.1
2009
0.5
1.0
1.1
2.6
2010
0.3
1.0
1.1
2.9
2011
0.3
1.5
1.1
2.1
2012
0.4
1.3
1.1
1.6
2013
0.4
1.5
1.3
-

Note: (-) No data available

Figure 10: Number of start-up companies formed per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

Figure 10: Number of start-up companies formed per $US100m research expenditure, 2004-2013

Time Series Data 200-2013 (60 institutions)

Intellectual Property Activity

  • The number of invention disclosures has increased by 146%, from 528 in 2000 to 1,300 in 2013.  Overall, there has been a steady increase in invention disclosures across all institution types with the highest contribution from universities.
  • The total number of new patent and plant breeder rights applications filed in Australia and the US has increased by 15%, from 574 in 2000 to 658 in 2013.
  • The number of patents and plant breeder rights issued worldwide has increased by 94%, from 524 in 2000 to 1,019 in 2013.

Table 11: Number of invention disclosures by sector, 2000-2013

  Universities PFRAs MRIs TOTAL
2000
441
62
25
528
2001
560
59
115
734
2002
531
77
134
742
2003
652
65
93
810
2004
791
35
135
961
2005
717
119
96
932
2006
855
130
107
1092
2007
979
103
110
1192
2008
1145
77
106
1328
2009
1198
106
146
1450
2010
1328
114
154
1596
2011
1295
123
241
1659
2012
971
82
228
1281
2013
1044
86
170
1300

Figure 11: Number of invention disclosures by sector, 2000-2013

Figure 11: Number of invention disclosures by sector, 2000-2013

Licences, Options and Assignments (LOAs)

  • The number of LOAs yielding income per annum has increased by 94% from 489 in 2000 to 947 in 2013.
  • Adjusted LOA income in constant 2013 prices has dropped by about 20% from $150m in 2000 to $120m in 2013.
  • The number of LOAs executed per annum has increased by 50%, from 414 in 2000 to 619 in 2013. The university sector recovered after sharp drops in 2008 and 2009, to a record high of 339 LOAs executed in 2010.  While PFRAs remained stable, MRIs experienced a 17% decline, from 41 in 2012 to 34 in 2013.

Table 12: Number of LOAs executed by sector, 2000-2013

  Universities PFRAs MRIs TOTAL
2000
234
168
12
414
2001
179
166
15
360
2002
225
195
28
448
2003
249
158
25
432
2004
294
68
21
383
2005
269
94
90
452
2006
305
105
107
517
2007
315
99
135
549
2008
241
124
106
471
2009
266
114
107
487
2010
339
117
47
503
2011
305
123
55
483
2012
319
120
41
480
2013
431
154
34
619

Figure 12: Number of LOAs executed by sector, 2000-2013

Figure 12: Number of LOAs executed by sector, 2000-2013

Start-up Company Activity

  • Start-up company formation has fallen by 53% from 47 in 2000 to 22 in 2013. The highest start-up company formation was recorded in 2001 at 62 start-up companies formed.
  • The number of start-up companies operational with institutional equity rose from 69 in 2000 to a high of 206 in 2004. While not reaching the 2004 levels the 2013 figure of 182 was an increase of 163% from 2000 to 2014. 
  • The value of equity holdings in constant 2013 prices for universities rose from $113m in 2000 to a high of $221m in 2004 and has dropped back to $111m in 2013.
  • PFRAs have suffered a 77% drop in the value of equity holdings in constant 2013 prices from $47m in 2000 to $11m in 2013. MRIs also experienced a decrease in the value of equity holdings from $25m in 2000 to $11m in 2013.

Table 13: Value of equity holdings in constant 2013 prices ($m) by sector, 2000-2013

  Universities PFRAs MRIs TOTAL
2000
113
47
25
184
2001
136
45
5
186
2002
125
28
11
164
2003
183
25
6
214
2004
221
14
17
253
2005
177
20
13
210
2006
163
44
24
231
2007
152
60
21
233
2008
112
76
15
203
2009
122
89
41
252
2010
118
37
2
157
2011
110
29
1
141
2012
65
16
10
91
2013
111
11
12
134

Figure 13: Value of equity holdings in constant 2013 prices ($m) by sector, 2000-2013

Figure 13: Value of equity holdings in constant 2013 prices ($m) by sector, 2000-2013

Commercialisation Staff

  • Over the period 2000 to 2013, the total level of dedicated commercialisation staff has increased by 66%, growing from 190 FTE in 2000 to 315 FTE in 2013.

Table 14: Number of dedicated commercialisation staff in FTE by sector, 2000-2013

  Universities PFRAs MRIs TOTAL
2000
89
97
4
190
2001
113
109
10
232
2002
135
137
13
285
2003
113
168
15
296
2004
126
143
14
283
2005
125
153
19
297
2006
131
151
21
303
2007
152
121
22
294
2008
168
129
19
315
2009
165
131
20
316
2010
171
124
15
309
2011
169
126
16
312
2012
136
128
11
274
2013
172
132
11
315

Figure 14: Number of dedicated commercialisation staff by sector, 2000-2013

Figure 14: Number of dedicated commercialisation staff by sector, 2000-2013